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THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HIGH AND LOW INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN THE DOG:  AN ANATOMIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC EXPLANATION

JOHN J. MORTON
Arch Surg. 1929;18(4):1119-1139. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1929.01140130209009.
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The many different results obtained by investigators in experimental intestinal obstruction can be explained to some extent by the variations in the technic employed. Careful study demonstrates that there are three distinct pictures of disease included under the title intestinal obstruction. The obstructions high in the duodenum or at the pylorus result in dehydration, loss of chlorides from the blood and tissues, and alkalosis, but no real intoxication. The animals can be made to live for long periods by supplying water and sodium chloride; death is probably due to starvation. The second type is that of strangulation with resulting rapid necrosis and early profound toxemia. These animals die quickly from toxemia or peritonitis, often with little evidence of dehydration or dechlorination. The third group is characterized by high or low obstruction in the intestine, associated with dehydration, loss of chlorides, alkalosis and a toxemia. There is usually a latent period

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