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Arch Surg. 1929;19(4):600-659. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1929.01150040036002.
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REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  A consideration of the numerous methods of procedure used in the experimental study of peptic ulcer shows that experimental ulcers may be grouped under a few general headings: (1) resulting from a deficient blood supply to the gastric mucosa; (2) produced by the action of bacteria; (3) resulting from the action of toxic agents; (4) resulting from trophic and glandular disturbances, and (5) produced by the action of the digestive juices.Prior to Virchow's time, experimental studies of the problem had not been carried out. Indeed, a clear recognition of peptic ulcer as a distinct pathologic and clinical entity was not achieved until comparatively late in the progress of medical science. Galen, Celsus and other ancient investigators, presented vague and doubtful references to the ulcer in their descriptions of passia cardiaca, hematemesis and melena. The postmortem examinations of the sixteenth century, stimulated by the general revival


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