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W. L. ESTES Jr., M.D.
Arch Surg. 1931;23(1):119-128. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1931.01160070122008.
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From the reports of the end-results of operations on the gallbladder, cholecystectomy has been shown to be the operation of choice in disease of the gallbladder with or without stones.

In patients with acute infections of the gallbladder, frequently bad risks, cholecystectomy is often technically difficult, and cholecystostomy is resorted to because of the ease and rapidity with which it may be executed, as well as the fact that drainage of the biliary tract may be indicated, and it affords a ready means of drainage of the biliary ducts. In from 25 to 50 per cent of the cases, this measure is only palliative, and cholecystectomy is later necessary because of persistent infection in the gallbladder with recurrent symptoms, the formation of stones or a biliary fistula. The ideal operation for even acute cholecystitis, provided it were safe, would be cholecystectomy or an operation that would destroy or remove the


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