Arch Surg. 1932;25(2):282-320. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1932.01160200027003.
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HYPOPLASIA AND APLASIA OF ELEMENTS OF WRIST AND HAND  Attention has already been drawn to hypoplasia of the distal elements of the hand, for example, the absence of any part of the digits from the smallest part of the distal phalanx or nail to the absence of the entire finger or thumb. It remains to discuss hypoplasia and aplasia of the intermediate elements, the carpus, metacarpus and phalanges. Again these various types of hypoplasias have been dignified by names and descriptions as clinical entities, such as brachydactylism, brachyphalangism, clinodactylism, etc. In this group, even more than in the groups that have been discussed, it is evident that these are not clinical entities but parts of a general picture of hypoplasia with associated disorientation. Every gradation from the simplest type of so-called clinodactylism to complete absence of one or many elements may be seen. In the same individual or in his


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