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A REVIEW OF UROLOGIC SURGERY

ALBERT J. SCHOLL, M.D.; FRANK HINMAN, M.D.; ALEXANDER B. HEPLER, M.D.; ROBERT GUTIERREZ, M.D.; GERSHOM J. THOMPSON, M.D.; JAMES T. PRIESTLEY, M.D.; JEAN VERBRUGGE, M.D.; VINCENT J. O'CONOR, M.D.
Arch Surg. 1936;33(2):315-348. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1936.01190020131011.
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KIDNEY 

Anomalies.  —Campbell1 said that, in the main, anomalies of the upper part of the urinary tract are significant because (1) the renal reserve is diminished, (2) the kidney is misplaced or malformed, (3) there is urinary obstruction, or (4) there is abnormal discharge of urine. In 193 of 282 infants and children with hydronephrosis whom he observed in series the condition was secondary to an anomaly of the upper part of the urinary tract (a frequency of 68.8 per cent). In 179 of 580 young persons with persistent pyuria whom he observed in series 206 anomalies of the upper part of the urinary tract were demonstrated (a frequency of 30 per cent).The surgical importance of agenesia, aplasia or fused formation of solitary kidney is that the only functioning parenchyma may be unwittingly excised. Congenital ectopic kidneys, as distinguished from abnormally mobile organs, are firmly held in position

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