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A REVIEW OF UROLOGIC SURGERY

ALBERT J. SCHOLL, M.D.; FRANK HINMAN, M.D.; ALEXANDER VON LICHTENBERG, M.D.; ALEXANDER B. HEPLER, M.D.; ROBERT GUTIERREZ, M.D.; GERSHOM J. THOMPSON, M.D.; JAMES T. PRIESTLEY, M.D.; VINCENT J. O'CONOR, M.D.
Arch Surg. 1936;33(6):1078-1116. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1936.01190060168008.
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KIDNEY 

Anomalies.  —Baker and Colston1 stated that clinically there is a definite syndrome of symptoms associated with horseshoe kidney. Various indefinite types of abdominal pain may be present, and particularly gastro-intestinal symptoms of varying degree, which are probably correctly attributed to the pressure of the isthmus of the horseshoe kidney on the rich plexuses of splanchnic nerves. The intimate relationship of these nerves to the underlying large vessels makes them particularly vulnerable to pressure exerted from the isthmus. Fusion of the lower poles of the kidneys is the more common type in this anomaly. In a series of 69 reported cases, fusion of the upper pole was found in only 1 case. The anomaly of horseshoe kidney may exist for years without symptoms, and many times it is encountered at necropsy without any clinical record of renal disease in the patient's past history. From a clinical standpoint, the symptoms

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