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A REVIEW OF UROLOGIC SURGERY

ALBERT J. SCHOLL, M.D.; FRANK HINMAN, M.D.; ALEXANDER von LICHTENBERG, M.D.; ALEXANDER B. HEPLER, M.D.; ROBERT GUTIERREZ, M.D.; GERSHOM J. THOMPSON, M.D.; JAMES T. PRIESTLEY, M.D.; VINCENT J. O'CONOR, M.D.
Arch Surg. 1937;35(2):373-418. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1937.01190140165011.
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Physiology.  —Rubritius52 stated that the hollow muscular organs behave according to the laws which govern all the nonstriated muscles. The peristalsis of the hollow tubiform organs as well as the phases of filling and evacuating of hollow spherical organs can be explained by these principles.During the phase of retention the wall of the bladder expands by the accumulation of urine, while its resistance remains the same. During this phase the internal pressure of the abdominal cavity is transmitted only partially to the internal pressure of the bladder on account of the tonus, that is, the resistance of the wall of the bladder. The capacity of the bladder is dependent on the tonus of the moment. When the maximal capacity has been reached, the contractive stimulus passes into the most extended muscular zone, that is, into the detrusor muscle.With the contraction of the detrusor muscle, the sphincter

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