A survey of the progress and changes in the management of disease of the biliary tract during the past thirty years presents an interesting panorama.
In general, progress in medicine and surgery has been dependent to a large degree on new discoveries and improvements in the ancillary sciences. In the lifetime of the present generation probably most progress has been due to good research work by physicians themselves. The great question which agitated the surgical world from 1900 to 1910 was that of cholecystectomy versus cholecystostomy. Today it is no longer even discussed; cholecystostomy has become a rare and almost discarded operation and when employed is considered a makeshift procedure.
Certainly, the most dramatic and useful development in the diagnosis of disease of the gallbladder during this period was the introduction by Graham and his associates of cholecystography. This was first presented in 1924 and was perfected in 1925. It