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Arch Surg. 1941;43(4):573-578. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1941.01210160034005.
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These studies were undertaken in an attempt to answer several puzzling questions: (1) whether or not patients having micro-organisms in the urine of the bladder before operations involving the bladder are more likely to have postoperative complications and pyelitis than are those having no organisms in the bladder; (2) whether any relationship exists between the duration of operation and of anesthesia and the incidence of postoperative catheterization; (3) whether there is any relationship between postoperative catheterization, complications involving the bladder and morbidity.

The close anatomic relationship between the bladder, the vagina, the cervix and the fundus of the uterus makes the bladder vulnerable to injury in certain types of operations. Anterior colporrhaphy involves the separation of the vaginal tissues from the anterior surface of the bladder and from the trigonal region, which is more closely attached at the cervical area. The same procedure is carried out in the Watkins interposition


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