In July 1941 Pearse1 reported on the use of a vitallium2 tube for the relief of stricture of the common bile duct in a group of 3 patients. His work was first carried out in dogs, and the technic was subsequently applied to human beings. Pearse drew the following conclusions:
1. A vitallium tube does not form stones or deposits in the presence of bile.
2. No pathologic changes occur in the common bile duct as a result of the contiguity of the metal tube.
3. A holder (or flange) attached to the side of the vitallium tube and protruding through the anastomosis is important in preventing the tube from slipping down the common bile duct. 4. The 3 patients in whom it had been used and in whom the ends of the common bile duct were anastomosed over the vitallium tube had remained well clinically.