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EFFECTS OF MORPHINE IN EXPERIMENTAL SHOCK DUE TO HEMORRHAGE

ALFRED BLALOCK, M.D.
Arch Surg. 1943;47(4):326-328. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1943.01220160010002.
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The following statements regarding the use of morphine in the treatment of injured patients were made by Cannon1 in 1923:

Concerning the use of morphine there have been differences of opinion. It has been given to badly wounded men hypodermically even in as large a dose as one grain [0.06 Gm.]. Crile and Lower have advocated giving the drug to the point at which respiration sinks to at least 12 per minute. On the other hand Marshall, who has had very large experience in anesthetizing shocked men, has testified that the severely wounded, when deeply morphinized, make an unsatisfactory recovery after operation.... As experiments have proved, after morphine the blood pressure may be lowered further without producing acidosis than is possible otherwise, an observation which suggests that morphine lessens metabolism at a time when the oxygen, needed for the maintenance of chemical changes in the cells, is likely to

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