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PROGRESS IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY FOR 1943 A REVIEW PREPARED BY AN EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS:  VIII. CONDITIONS INVOLVING THE KNEE JOINT

RALPH K. GHORMLEY, M.D.
Arch Surg. 1944;49(4):261-265. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1944.01230020269009.
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Embryology.  —McDermott240 traced the development of the knee joint by means of serial sections from the third week of fetal life to birth, and the meniscuses were studied to the age of 12 years. A thorough review of the embryologic development of the knee joint is included in this article.

Anatomy and Physiology.  —Brantigan and Voshell241 made a detailed gross and microscopic study of the tibial collateral ligament and its environment. They say that this ligament is attached superiorly to the medial femoral epicondyle and inferiorly to two points on the tibia, one posterior, just below the articular cartilage, lateral to and above the insertion of the semimembranous tendon, and the second anterior to the medial tibial surface and 4.6 cm. below the articular surface. There are two divisions of the ligament: (1) anterior parallel fibers from the femur to the tibia and (2) posterior oblique fibers.

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