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PROGRESS IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY FOR 1945 A Review Prepared by an Editorial Board of the Amercian Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons XIII. NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS EXCLUSIVE OF POLIOMYELITIS

Arch Surg. 1947;54(5):566-571. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1947.01230070575007.
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DURING 1945 there has been still greater increase in the amount of literature dealing with neuromuscular disorders, especially cerebral palsy. Literature in the field of neuromuscular disorders exclusive of poliomyelitis is apparently coming to deal more and more with study in distinguishing between the pyramidal and the extrapyramidal tracts. The material can be considered under the following headings: (1) cerebral palsy, (2) paralysis of other types, (3) muscle disorder, (4) muscular atrophy, dystrophy and syringomyelia and (5) traumatic conditions of the nerves.

A paper by Kennard and Welch386 of an experimental nature utilizing monkeys and chimpanzees, is of great importance with regard to distinguishing between different types of damage to the cortex and in differentiation between areas 4 and 6. Removal of area 6 is followed by spastic paresis, while removal of area 4 is followed by paresis without spasticity. Removal of the postcentral gyrus caused transient flaccidity. Also,


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