DURING past thirteen years rapid advancement has been made in the surgical management of intrathoracic lesions. In 1933 Graham1 performed the first successful removal of the entire lung for carcinoma of the bronchus. Adams and Phemister2 made the first successful one stage resection of the lower part of the esophagus and esophagogastrostomy for carcinoma performed through the thorax in 1938. Gross3 in 1939 reported closure of a patent ductus. Crafoord and Nylin4 in 1944 were the first to relieve successfully the ill effects of coarctation of the aorta by resection and anastomosis. Blalock and Taussig5 in 1944 performed the first operation in human beings for the correction of pulmonary stenosis.
Intrathoracic surgery is accompanied with many unusual surgical and anesthetic hazards. The dangers of an open pneumothorax were understood by Andreas Vesalius,6 who in 1555 demonstrated to his students at Padua not only the