FRACTURES OF THE ANKLE:  Analytic Historic Survey as the Basis of New Experimental, Roentgenologic and Clinical Investigations

Arch Surg. 1948;56(3):259-317. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1948.01240010266001.
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IN ANCIENT times lesions of the ankle were diagnosed chiefly as luxations, and early writers therefore always dealt with them in the sections on luxations. Not until after the middle of the eighteenth century were there traces in the literature of attempts to clarify the position of the malleolar fractures in relation to luxations of the ankle. It was especially in clinical works, particularly French and English, that attention was called to the serious nature of the fractures of the ankle and to the great difficulties connected with their treatment, and especially to the poor results which were often achieved, as it was impossible to prevent the treatment's leaving a greater or lesser degree of disability.

During the nineteenth century it was chiefly French scientists who worked at the problem of lesions of the ankle, and substantial results were attained by experimental-surgical research as well as clinically. Great progress was


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