FOR MANY years surgery of the heart and the great vessels was confined to operations on the pericardium or to dramatic emergency procedures for the treatment of injuries, pulmonary embolism or cardiac arrest. Possibilities for further surgical intervention in this region were foreseen but reluctantly attempted.1 Within the last decade, surgery of the heart and the great vessels has advanced tremendously. Operations have been attempted and successfully accomplished which would not have been deemed possible a relatively short time ago. The pathologic study of congenital heart disease and the correlation of anatomic defects with clinical symptoms by Abbott2 instigated many of the surgical attempts to relieve some of these cardiac conditions. We believe that it is safe to say that these attempts might not have been so uniformly successful had not comparable advances been made in anesthesiology in recent years.
On Aug. 26, 1938 Gross3 made the