0
ARTICLE |

SURGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOWER THORACIC AND LUMBAR INDEPENDENT SYMPATHETIC PATHWAYS

ALBERT KUNTZ, Ph.D., M.D.; WILLIAM F. ALEXANDER, Ph.D.
AMA Arch Surg. 1950;61(6):1007-1018. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1950.01250021017003.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

THE PERSISTENCE of functional sympathetic conduction pathways following extirpation of the sympathetic trunk or section of the communicating rami in man has been amply demonstrated.1 Sympapathetic conduction pathways which do not traverse the sympathetic trunks have also been demonstrated anatomically.2 Such pathways involve synaptic connections of preganglionic fibers which do not enter the sympathetic trunk with ganglion cells which are located outside the sympathetic trunk ganglions. Aggregates of sympathetic ganglion cells located in relation to communication rami, particularly gray rami, or sympathetic roots, have been reported.3 Alexander and others2 have pointed out, on the basis of anatomic studies, that many sympathetic ganglions which are not incorporated in the sympathetic trunk are located in relation to the spinal nerves and their interconnecting rami. Some of them receive preganglionic fibers directly via the ventral nerve roots. In turn, postganglionic fibers arising in them extend distalward in the spinal

Topics

Sign In to Access Full Content

Don't have Access?

Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more

Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features

Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)

Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours

First Page Preview

View Large
/>
First page PDF preview

Figures

Tables

References

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Jobs
brightcove.createExperiences();