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AMA Arch Surg. 1951;63(2):229-233. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1951.01250040233012.
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ESOPHAGEAL fistulas in the laboratory animal have been utilized for a variety of experimental purposes. Pavlov and Schumova-Simanovskaia1 used dogs with cervical and gastric fistulas in their studies on the relationship of the vagus nerves to gastric secretion. Pavlov2 states that neck infection in the dog is serious and often fatal. In 1929 Saint and Mann3 cited the appalling mortality associated with experimental surgery of the esophagus and called attention to the factors of poor blood supply and lack of a true serosa. Saint4 later stressed the risk of fatal infection of the pleura and the cellular tissues of the neck. Allen5 mentions the frequency of mediastinitis during the course of experimental surgery when the lumen of the esophagus is opened. After the clinical experiences of Sturgeon6 and Lahey7 with esophageal diverticulas, both Allen5 and Markowitz8 advocated the use of two


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