THE PROBLEM of differentiating jaundice which is amenable to surgery from that which is not arises much less frequently in infants and children than in adults. The common causes of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in adults are very rare in children under 12 yr. of age. However, there are certain conditions which are peculiar to the younger age group that are frequently forgotten by those not working constantly with children.
We have studied 84 cases of jaundice in children under the age of 12 yr. seen in University Hospitals of Cleveland in the past 20 years. Tables 1 and 2 show the breakdown of these cases into surgical and medical groups.
The congenital hemolytic anemias with jaundice have been included in the surgical group because they are amenable to operative therapy. The so-called physiological jaundice of the newborn has been excluded, although most authors feel that this is not necessarily a