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AMA Arch Surg. 1952;65(1):19-30. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1952.01260020031003.
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ACUTE massive venous occlusion has recently received increasing attention, although references to it in the literature have appeared since 1593, when Fabricius Hildanus1 reported and described such an entity even to the details of gangrene. (He also reported and described congenital pyloric stenosis.2) Cruveilhier,3 while recognizing this feature as an accompaniment of venous occlusion, pointed out that the incidence of gangrene was not large. He stated that gangrene cannot develop in the absence of extensive and complete venous occlusion. It was not until 1937, however, that the essential features of this complication were made clear by Fontaine and de Sousa-Pereira.4 They showed that complete ligation of the venous circulation in the leg of the dog produced gangrene, just as in the intestine. It was also shown that the process might be arrested at any stage, and hence that the condition does not in all cases progress


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