AMA Arch Surg. 1954;69(1):113-118. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1954.01270010115017.
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THE SCOPE of modern orthopedics is both medical and surgical. It is a field that is being cultivated with the newest implements of basic science research. Advances in biological research are being applied to orthopedic surgery now more than ever before in history. Papers in orthopedic surgery during the past few years have dealt with embryonic life and the whole span of childhood, maturity, and senility. Newer knowledge has been sought even in ancient bones and anthropological specimens.1

Disorders and treatments regarded as purely mechanical in the first half of this century are now more accurately described as biomechanical and are being investigated with the aid of the methods of basic chemistry and physiology of living processes. The Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation made an outstanding contribution in organizing multidisciplinary conferences to encourage communication and integration of biological researches on bone and connective tissue. The Conferences on Metabolic Interrelations from


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