The first reported study on the problem of creating an artificial bladder was that of Tizzoni and Foggi,1 in 1888. They isolated a 7 in. segment of ileum and anastomosed the ureterovesical tissue into its proximal end. Then, at a second stage they anastomosed the distal end of the segment to the neck of the bladder. Two months later the dog appeared normal, except for frequency of urination.
The next experimental work was by Bisgard,* in 1943. He used segments of terminal colon to construct an artificial bladder in two stages. The immediate results were good, and dogs living two years still showed an essentially normal urinary tract. Rubin,4 in 1948, and Thompson,5 in 1949, repeated Bisgard's work with successful results. Davids and Bell win,6 in 1954, repeated the work of Tizzoni and Foggi, using 35 cm. segments of ileum. Their dogs showed poor nutrition and