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Trauma to the Shoulder, Arm, Elbow and Forearm

AMA Arch Surg. 1957;75(5):730-732. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1957.01280170040023.
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Any of the three joints comprising the shoulder mechanism may be displaced or dislocated as the result of trauma. Persistent, unreduced sternoclavicular dislocation is not always disabling to any significant degree. In some instances, however, it is either undesirable cosmetically or may give rise to pain and, as a late result, secondary traumatic arthritis. Acromioclavicular separation or dislocation is most frequently sustained as the result of direct trauma to the "point" of the shoulder and is frequently seen in football players. In the first, only the acromioclavicular ligaments are disrupted, and displacement is minimal because the coracoclavicular ligaments remain intact. When the trauma has been severer and the coracoclavicular ligaments are also disrupted, displacement is more marked, the weight of the arm tending to allow the shoulder to drop in relation to the clavicle, which remains elevated by the pull of its attached muscles. Reduction is easy but is unstable,


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