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Carbon Dioxide Tolerance in Interstitial and Intravascular Spaces in Dogs

ROBERT BOWER, M.D.; DAVID M. LONG Jr., M.D.; WILLIAM C. SHOEMAKER, M.D.; WILLIAM L. MARTIN, M.D.
AMA Arch Surg. 1958;76(4):649-651. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1958.01280220169034.
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The renewed interest in the adrenal, pancreas, and other retroperitoneal structures stands as a challenge to better diagnostic methods. The outline of the retroperitoneal space has been attempted with small quantities of air or oxygen.1,2,5,9 However, air embolism following the presacral or flank injection of air or oxygen is being reported with increasing frequency.3,4,6,8 Use of CO2 as the agent for retroperitoneal insufflation would have the following advantages: (1) The high solubility of CO2 would reduce the hazard of gas embolization; (2) CO2 is free of allergic or idiosyncratic properties, and (3) CO2 is readily available and is inexpensive. Stauffer, Durant, and Oppenheimer7 have safely used CO2 for delineation of the cardiac chambers in doses of 7.5 cc/kg. In the past six months we have been interested in the investigation of CO2 as a medium for outlining the retroperitoneal, intraperitoneal, intravascular,

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