The two chief difficulties encountered in seeking an ideal intravenous urographic medium are (1) undesirable side-reactions and (2) failure consistently to obtain films of good diagnostic quality. During the past few years, various concentrations and combinations of contrast media have been introduced for evaluation. Numerous encouraging results indicate that, in the majority of instances, many of these media might have advantages over some of the older, established urographic solutions.
It is the purpose of this study to review our experiences and results with a series of 4136 intravenous urograms which have been obtained with use of the newer pyelographic media. Results have been considered on the basis of reactions and quality of pyelograms.
This study is based on an examination of 4136 patients using the urographic media indicated in Table 1.The history was taken with specific reference to allergy, previous reactions to urographic media, asthma, etc. A conjunctival