The first attempts to transplant the kidney from animal to man were made by Ullmann (1902); Jaboulay (1906), and Unger (1910) in the beginning of the 20th century. The priority in cadaver renal homoplasty in man belongs to the Soviet surgeon U. U. Voronoy (1934).
Up to the present moment all the experimental and clinical attempts to implant renal homografts have ended in failure as far as complete and permanent implantation was concerned.
The case of renal grafting from homozygous twin, described by Merrill and collaborators in 1956, is considered to be an exception.
In spite of failures the clinical need for such operations is so great, the effect of transplantation in individual cases is so striking that the number of published observations increases markedly each year.
Up to this time reports of 28 operations of this kind have been published,* though their real number is apparently much greater.