Effect of Simulated Gallstones on Guinea Pig Gallbladders

Arch Surg. 1963;87(4):583-589. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1963.01310160045008.
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Introduction  Cancer of the gallbladder and gallstones have been considered for many years to be in some way related. There is still, however, no exact knowledge of the relationships which prevail. Because the sequence of formation is unknown, both have been considered precursors of the other, while some have suggested a simultaneous development.With the belief in the etiological relationship between biliary calculi and carcinoma, many authors1,4,12,16,19,37,38 have advocated cholecystectomy in cases of cholelithiasis as a prophylactic measure. This reasoning seems to be borne out by the high percentage of gallbladders with carcinoma that are found to contain gallstones, the reported percentage varying from 54% to 91%.* When studies were made of gallbladders removed because of cholelithiasis, however, only 10% were found to show carcinoma.† It is on the basis of this low percentage that Kramer22 states that if calculi were a causative factor in carcinoma of the


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