Nonparasitic solitary splenic cystic lesions occurred in four patients. Selective arteriography was successful in each instance in determining the correct preoperative diagnosis of splenic cyst. Subsequent histologic examination classified two lesions as false cysts, one as a true cyst, and one as a chronic cystic hematoma (or false cyst). There appeared to be no difference in the arteriographic pattern between true and false splenic cysts, or between these cysts and chronic splenic hematomas. The presence of active infection within the splenic cyst was suspected in one patient from the arteriographic demonstration of a thickened cyst wall.