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Arch Surg. 1971;103(5):656. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350110158029.
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To the Editor.—Good people often reinvent a procedure that has already been invented, when there is a need for it and when the times are ripe for it. This is true for the procedure described by Dr. John C. Norman,1 and also described by Drs. J. Kent Trinkle and Lester R. Bryant.2 To the best of our knowledge, Dr. William Chardack and coworkers3 were the first to describe the method of transapical left ventricular bypass.4 He also presented it before the North American Chapter of the International Cardiovascular Society in 1966. He proved that a left ventricle decompressed with a special kind of double lumen cannula could be more easily defibrillated.

Not having seen his article, two men in our department, Drs. Alex Kralios and Clifford S. Kwan-Gett, independently reinvented the method. Their aim was to apply it in patients dying from cardiogenic shock, particularly


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