A syndrome of segmental neuralgia of the leg is presented based on a study of 60 extremities in 48 patients. The syndrome is characterized by a localized exquisite tenderness on the lateral side of the popliteal space, radiating distally along the outer surface of the leg and occasionally proximally toward the posterior surface of the thigh. The apparent cause of this syndrome is the entrapment of cutaneous branches (lateral cutaneous and sural communicating) of the peroneal nerve by the fascial openings for the passage of the nerves associated with compression and traction at the level of the popliteal fossa. Relief of pain has almost uniformly been achieved by injections of a local anesthetic into the area of maximal tenderness. Correct and early diagnosis may spare the patient unnecessary treatments for other conditions mistaken for this syndrome.