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ARTICLE |

Angiographic Evaluation in Extracranial Vascular Occlusive Disease

Charles R. Simmons, MD; Eric Tsao, MD; Louis L. Smith, MD; David B. Hinshaw, MD; Joseph R. Thompson, MD
Arch Surg. 1973;107(5):785-790. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1973.01350230137024.
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Studies of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral circulation have been performed by arch arteriography and selective angiography in 2,384 patients with an incidence of major neurological complications of 0.5% and one death. The need for visualization of the arch, as well as the extracranial and intracranial arteries in most patients, is illustrated by cases of unsuspected tumors, proximal and distal stenoses, well-developed collateral circulation, and by detailed visualization of plaques on coned-down views. The elimination of "pseudo-occlusions" resulting from other techniques has been another advantage.

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The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
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