Intraoperative angiography was performed during a variety of 155 arterial reconstructive procedures including bypass, endarterectomy, embolectomy, thrombectomy, primary reconstruction, and angioplasty. In 27 or 17% of these cases, defects were identified that could be corrected. These included technical errors at the suture line, accumulation of platelet thrombus and atherosclerotic debris, or unrecognized lesions in the runoff. The likelihood of identifying such lesions is greatest in patients undergoing bypass surgery, particularly when the distal anastomosis involves one of the leg arteries. Routine use of intraoperative angiography as an adjunct to vascular surgery is justified and will help to obviate many early graft failures.