Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by renal failure is associated with a mortality greater than 90%. Aggressive management, which included the early use of hemodialysis, was employed. Between 1970 and 1973, a total of 43 patients had surgery for proved ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Fourteen patients developed acute and fixed renal failure. Nine of these 14 patients had undergone hemodialysis with treatments beginning as early as the second postoperative day and lasting as long as ten weeks. There were six survivors, with a hospital mortality of 33%. This represents an improvement in survival compared with our earlier experience where the mortality in this type of patient was 93%. Early use of hemodialysis in the postoperative management of patients with acute renal failure complicating ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is recommended.