This study was designed to answer the three following questions: (1) Are glucocorticoids as protective in Gram-negative bacteremic shock as they are in endotoxic shock? (2) Is there any difference in efficacy between a bacteriostatic and a bactericidal antibiotic in bacteremic shock? (3) Does the combination of glucocorticoid with antibiotic potentiate the individual protective effects of both? Bacteremia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intravenous injection of viable Escherichia coli. The results showed that dexamethasone sodium phosphate alone afforded significant protection against Gram-negative bacteremic shock up to eight hours after challenge. The choice of a bactericidal vs a bacteriostatic antibiotic did not influence the survival rates in this study. The survival rate was maximal when dexamethasone was used with both ampicillin sodium and gentamicin sulfate.