We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Effects of Female Sex Hormones and Pregnancy on Gallbladder Prostaglandin Synthesis

Eddie L. Hoover, MD; Bernard M. Jaffe, MD; Hueldine Webb, MD; David W. England, MB, ChB
Arch Surg. 1988;123(6):705-708. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1988.01400300047007.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


• To investigate whether female sex hormones and pregnancy induce increased gallbladder synthesis of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and prostaglandin E (PGE), we used an in vitro incubation chamber to quantitate the effects of progesterone, estrogen, pregnancy, and pregnancy plus a 2%-cholesterol diet on mucosal and serosal PGI2 and PGE production by the rabbit gallbladder. Neither the female sex hormones nor pregnancy alone caused a significant increase in PGI2 or PGE synthesis. The gallbladders of cholesterol-fed, pregnant rabbits demonstrated significant increases only in serosal synthesis of PGI2. This increased production was equivalent to that noted for gallbladders from nonpregnant rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. There were no increases in mucosal synthesis of PGE or of PGI2. Thus, neither elevated levels of progesterone or estrogen nor pregnancy is directly responsible for the increased PGI2 activity in the female gallbladder; conversely, this effect seems to be mediated by the increased biliary concentrations of cholesterol.

(Arch Surg 1988;123:705-708)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.