We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Experimental Liver Metastasis Implications of Clonal Proclivity and Organ Specificity

T. S. Ravikumar, MD; John D'Emilia, MD; Celia Cocchiaro; Barbara Wolf, MD; Vincent King; Glenn Steele Jr, MD, PhD
Arch Surg. 1989;124(1):49-54. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1989.01410010059013.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


• "Spontaneous" lung metastases develop in over 50% of the animals bearing subcutaneous isografts of WB-2054, a rat colon carcinoma. A metastatic variant has been developed by "Fidler" type in vivo selection, yielding 100% lung metastasis. In a five-week assay to test the organ specificity of this lung metastatic variant, however, "experimental" liver and lung metastases could be induced in 100% and 60% of animals on portal venous and intravenous injections, respectively. The results demonstrate selection of a metastatic variant from heterogeneous primary tumor, and suggest at least two interacting mechanisms: (1) mechanical (the anatomy of the bloodborne metastatic pathways) and (2) biologic (factors intrinsic to primary tumor subpopulations that can be selected for metastatic proclivity). In addition, liver metastases were successfully established from colon tumors induced by cecal wall injection of tumor cells. Such a spontaneous liver metastasis model will be useful to study the specific mechanisms involved during metastasis of colon cancer to the liver.

(Arch Surg 1989;124:49-54)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.