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Analysis of Potential Risks Associated With 7.5% Sodium Chloride Resuscitation of Traumatic Shock

Mary J. Vassar, RN, MS; Colleen A. Perry, RN; James W. Holcroft, MD
Arch Surg. 1990;125(10):1309-1315. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1990.01410220093013.
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• We evaluated the potential side effects of rapidly infusing 250 mL of either 7.5% sodium chloride or 7.5% sodium chloride per 6% dextran 70, using lactated Ringer's as the control, to 106 critically injured patients in two prospective double-blinded emergency department trials. Eight patients had a significant hyperchloremic acidemia in association with infusion of the hypertonic solutions, but all eight were moribund before infusion and many factors other than hyperchloremia could have contributed to their acidemia. Other blood chemistry changes that might have been associated with the hypertonic solutions, such as hyperosmolality or hypernatremia, were made insignificant by other factors, such as high blood alcohol levels or concomitant administration of sodium bicarbonate. There were no cases of central pontine myelinolysis; bleeding was not potentiated. There was no difficulty with crossmatching of blood. No anaphylactoid reactions occurred. In a setting of limited volume resuscitation, the solutions are likely to have a favorable risk-to-benefit ratio.

(Arch Surg. 1990;125:1309-1315)

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