• To improve our understanding of posttransplant infections, we analyzed bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, and other infections in 604 consecutive recipients of kidney (n = 518), kidney-pancreas (n = 82), kidney-liver (n = 3), or kidney-islet (n = 1) allografts (355 cadaveric, 14 living-unrelated, 235 living-related donors) who also received cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone immunosuppression. Recipients of cadaveric grafts received additional induction immunosuppression (antilymphocyte globulin or murine monoclonal antibody OKT3). Rejection episodes were treated with high-dose steroids, and either antilymphocyte globulin or OKT3 was administered when clinically indicated. Perioperative antibiotics and posttransplant prophylactic acyclovir sodium or ganciclovir sodium, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and clotrimazole or nystatin (Mycostatin) were administered to all recipients. Two hundred thirteen patients (35.3%) were found to have had no identifiable infections, while 391 (64.7%) had either isolated bacterial (97 [16.1 %]), viral (53 [8.8%]), or fungal (34 [5.6%]) infections or combination (concurrent or sequential) infections with bacterial plus viral (46 [7.6%]), bacterial plus fungal (66 [10.9%]), viral plus fungal (20 [3.3%]), bacterial plus viral plus fungal (64 [10.6%]), or bacterial plus viral plus fungal plus parasitic (11 [1.8%]) pathogens in the posttransplantation period. Renal allograft survival (percentage, actuarial method) was diminished in patients with infections at both 1 year (91% vs 83%) and 3 years (81% vs 76%) after transplantation, as was actuarial patient survival (1 year, 97% vs 92%; 3 years, 93% vs 88%). We conclude that infection remains a major cause of both patient demise and allograft loss following successful solid-organ transplantation.
(Arch Surg. 1992;127:38-48)