• We have proposed the term "therapeutic angiogenesis" to describe the induction or stimulation of neovascularization for the treatment or prevention of pathological clinical situations characterized by local hypovascularity. Evidence also shows that "clinically normal" healing and tissue regeneration can be improved or accelerated by therapeutic angiogenesis. Traditionally, therapeutic angiogenesis has been achieved by surgical methods, ie, the transposition of autologous tissues with uncompromised vasculature and high angiogenic potential such as omentum majus flaps and muscle flaps. Recent advances in the understanding of the biological process of neovascularization as well as the discovery and cloning of angiogenic cytokines may add a new clinical tool: therapeutic angiogenesis by pharmaceutical methods. Based on the results of animal studies and preliminary clinical trials, this review is aimed to give a state-of-the-art compilation of (1) those angiogenesis factors that appear promising in clinical application for therapeutic angiogenesis and (2) the surgical indication fields with near-term potential for therapeutic angiogenesis by use of angiogenic cytokines.
(Arch Surg. 1993;128:423-429)