Several concepts of hernia repair, as advocated by I. L. Lichtenstein, MD, bear the term Lichtenstein repair or Lichtenstein method. Thus, in 1962, it was the use of local anesthesia, 1-day hospitalization, and early return to work that were innovative. No mesh had yet been recommended. Years later, mesh was used to buttress all direct inguinal repairs. The Lichtenstein name was used for this procedure. Meanwhile, the plastic "plug" to repair femoral hernias and some recurrent inguinal hernias was another Lichtenstein repair. The true tension-free hernioplasty using mesh and no suture closure of the hernial defect was begun in 1984 and became the Lichtenstein technique. Several improvements to this technique have been added, making it much simpler and more effective. To clarify the eponymic confusion, it is recommended that the exact method used be appended to the name Lichtenstein.