We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Article |

Acute Pancreatitis Induces Intrapancreatic Tumor Necrosis Factor Gene Expression

James G. Norman, MD; Gregory W. Fink, MD; Michael G. Franz, MD
Arch Surg. 1995;130(9):966-970. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1995.01430090052018.
Text Size: A A A
Published online


Objective:  To examine the intrapancreatic production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and define its cell of origin during acute pancreatitis.

Design:  Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in adult male mice by administering cerulein (50 μg/kg intraperitoneally four times over 3 hours). Animals were killed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours, with the severity of pancreatitis established by blind histologic grading and serum amylase, lipase, and TNF levels. The expression of TNF messenger RNA within the pancreas was established by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Intrapancreatic TNF protein was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and immunohistochemical methods.

Results:  Acute pancreatitis was manifest within 1 hour of the first cerulein injection and increased in severity through 8 hours. There was no constitutive expression of TNF messenger RNA within the pancreas, but transcripts were induced within 30 minutes following the onset of pancreatitis, increasing through 4 hours. Intrapancreatic and serum TNF peptide levels became detectable at 1 hour and increased over 6 hours (both P<.001 vs control), with intrapancreatic levels rising faster and attaining concentrations three times higher than time-matched serum levels (P<.01). Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the progressive infiltration of macrophages into the pancreas that stained heavily for TNF (P<.01 vs control).

Conclusions:  Tumor necrosis factor gene expression is induced locally during acute pancreatitis, resulting in large amounts of intrapancreatic TNF with levels consistently higher than those found in the serum. The overall rise in both tissue and serum TNF concentrations correlates directly with the severity of pancreatic damage and inflammation. The infiltrating macrophage appears to contribute most to this process.(Arch Surg. 1995;130:966-970)


Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?





Also Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
Please click the checkbox indicating that you have read the full article in order to submit your answers.
Your answers have been saved for later.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.


Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

0 Citations

Sign in

Purchase Options

• Buy this article
• Subscribe to the journal
• Rent this article ?

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.