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Gallbladder Carcinoma in the Era of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Koji Yamaguchi, MD; Kazuo Chijiiwa, MD; Hitoshi Ichimiya, MD; Masayuki Sada, MD; Katsuhiko Kawakami, MD; Fujihiko Nishikata, MD; Kohki Konomi, MD; Masao Tanaka, MD
Arch Surg. 1996;131(9):981-984. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1996.01430210079015.
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Objective:  To assess the usefulness of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for unsuspected and suspected gallbladder carcinoma.

Design:  Retrospective review with a mean follow-up of 27 months, ranging from 1 to 47 months.

Setting:  University hospital and 8 affiliated hospitals.

Patients:  Of 2616 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed over 4 years, 24 gallbladder carcinomas were treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy and retrospectively reviewed.

Results:  The clinical course depended on the histopathologic depth of invasion of gallbladder carcinoma. All 6 cases of pathologic tumor (pT) stage in situ (pTis) gallbladder carcinoma and 2 cases of pT1 gallbladder carcinoma showed no invasion to the lymphatic, venous, or perineural spaces, and these 8 patients were all doing well from 2 to 19 months (mean, 11 months) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Sixteen cases of pT2 or pT3 gallbladder carcinoma invaded the subserosal layer or the liver, and 5 of the 16 patients were dead of liver dysfunction, abdominal wound recurrence, or liver metastasis 5 days and 7, 12, 15, and 18 months after operation, although additional resection of the liver bed with lymph node dissection was performed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 4 of these 5 patients. Abdominal wall recurrence in the absence of distant metastasis was present in 3 (19%) of the 16 patients with pT2 or pT3 gallbladder carcinoma due to inoculation of cancer cells in the abdominal stab wounds where the gallbladder or laparoscope was removed.

Conclusions:  Gallbladder carcinoma at the pTis or pT1 stage removed laparoscopically needs no other treatment. We recommend that the gallbladder be removed by vinyl bag and port sites be excised or washed with normal saline to prevent port site recurrence in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy for pT2 or pT3 carcinoma.Arch Surg. 1996;131:981-984


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