0
Special Feature |

Image of the Month—Diagnosis FREE

[+] Author Affiliations

Section Editor: Carl E. Bredenberg, MD

More Author Information
Arch Surg. 2008;143(8):806. doi:10.1001/archsurg.143.8.806.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

The discovery of a macroscopic lymphoproliferative lesion in the liver is an uncommon occurrence, which evokes diagnostic difficulties for the pathologist. Differentiating reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) from low-grade lymphomas may not always be possible on histologic evaluation alone. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia should not be confused with intrahepatic lymphoid follicles, sometimes seen with well-formed active germinal centers, that can occur in autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and chronic hepatitis B and C infection.1It is also difficult to differentiate from other rare entities, such as ectopic spleen, solitary plasmacytoma, or unicentric Castleman disease (angiofollicular hyperplasia) involving the liver.2Nonneoplastic nodules may include focal nodular hyperplasia, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, compensatory hyperplasia of the liver, pseudonodule of the liver demonstrable by angiography, partial nodular transformation, focal fatty change, cirrhotic large regenerative nodule with variable atypia, anoxic pseudolobular necrosis, intrahepatic bile duct adenoma, biliary and mesenchymal hamartoma, and mesenchymal nodular lesions, such as inflammatory pseudotumor and pseudolymphoma, pseudolipoma, peliosis hepatis, solitary necrotic nodule, and so on.3Some of these develop preferentially in noncirrhotic or cirrhotic livers, while others occur with similar prevalence in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic livers. Some occur multiply or diffusely and others singly. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, or inflammatory pseudotumors or plasma cell granulomas, may manifest morphologic features similar to RLH.

Very few cases of RLH forming benign hepatic tumor–like masses have been reported. There are usually no associated systemic manifestations. These lesions are generally discovered incidentally and present as hypoechoic, hypervascular masses.

Hepatic involvement by lymphoma is considered to represent stage IV disease, unless the liver represents the primary and only site of disease. Primary lymphomas may present as a solitary mass in 60% of cases or as multiple masses in 35% of cases. These numbers have increased since the emergence of the AIDS epidemic. Cases of primary hepatic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas presenting as solitary or multiple nodules have been described as well.3,4Hepatic involvement in Hodgkin disease can also manifest as large, irregular masses or as smaller, more diffusely distributed nodules. It is essential in such cases to identify Reed-Sternberg cells.

In contrast to RLH, primary lymphomas of the liver, if untreated, are associated with a poor prognosis, particularly if there is related cirrhosis. Therefore, it is important to recognize the occurrence of these benign hyperplastic lymphoid lesions so as not to erroneously diagnose them as low-grade lymphomas.5For a definitive diagnosis, careful histologic analysis integrated with immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analysis, as well as molecular genetic methods, should prove helpful in making the correct diagnosis. The prognosis of RLH is good, as most patients treated by resection of the lesion have shown no ill effects, recurrence, or progression to lymphoma.

Return to Quiz Case.

Correspondence:Adolfo Beguiristain, MD, PhD, Donostia Hospital, Paseo Dr Beguiristain, 20014 San Sebastián, Spain (abegiris@chdo.osakidetza.net).

Accepted for Publication:December 21, 2006.

Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Jiménez, Villar, and Medrano. Acquisition of data: Jiménez, Beguiristain, Ruiz-Montesinos, Villar, Garnateo, and Vaquero. Analysis and interpretation of data: Echenique Elizondo. Drafting of the manuscript: Echenique Elizondo. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Beguiristain, Medrano, Echenique Elizondo, and Vaquero. Administrative, technical, and material support: Ruiz-Montesinos, Villar, Medrano, and Garnateo. Study supervision: Echenique Elizondo.

Financial Disclosure:None reported.

Kim  SRHayashi  YKang  KB  et al.  A case of pseudolymphoma of the liver with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 1997;26 (1) 209- 214
PubMed
Saritas  UUstundag  YIsitan  GBastugrul  SErekul  S Abdominal Castleman disease with mixed histopathology in a patient with iron deficiency anemia, growth retardation and peliosis hepatis. Am J Med Sci 2006;331 (1) 51- 54
PubMed
Willenbrock  KKriener  SOeschger  SHansmann  ML Nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver with simultaneous focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma: discrimination from primary hepatic MALT-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Virchows Arch 2006;448 (2) 223- 227
PubMed
Katayanagi  KTerada  TNakanuma  YUeno  T A case of pseudolymphoma of the liver. Pathol Int 1994;44 (9) 704- 711
PubMed
Horiuchi  RUchida  TKojima  T  et al.  Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver: clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. Cancer 1990;65 (7) 1583- 1590
PubMed

Figures

Tables

References

Kim  SRHayashi  YKang  KB  et al.  A case of pseudolymphoma of the liver with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 1997;26 (1) 209- 214
PubMed
Saritas  UUstundag  YIsitan  GBastugrul  SErekul  S Abdominal Castleman disease with mixed histopathology in a patient with iron deficiency anemia, growth retardation and peliosis hepatis. Am J Med Sci 2006;331 (1) 51- 54
PubMed
Willenbrock  KKriener  SOeschger  SHansmann  ML Nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver with simultaneous focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma: discrimination from primary hepatic MALT-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Virchows Arch 2006;448 (2) 223- 227
PubMed
Katayanagi  KTerada  TNakanuma  YUeno  T A case of pseudolymphoma of the liver. Pathol Int 1994;44 (9) 704- 711
PubMed
Horiuchi  RUchida  TKojima  T  et al.  Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver: clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. Cancer 1990;65 (7) 1583- 1590
PubMed

Correspondence

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Submit a Comment

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

See Also...
Articles Related By Topic
Related Topics
PubMed Articles